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Industrial Combustion
Journal of the International Flame Research Foundation       ISSN 2075-3071

Latest Papers

On this page you can access copies of the last three articles published, and browse their titles, authors, abstracts and keywords. 

Article Number 201605, November 2017

The Changing Scene of Natural Gas and Alternative Fuels

1. Orbital Gas Systems

Cold Meece, Stone, Staffordshire, ST15 0QN, UK

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This paper describes natural gas quality variations worldwide and looks forward to predict further changes. The drivers for these changes are presented as gas field depletion, climate change, emissions reduction, sustainability and ‘power-to-gas’ energy storage. Sources of future gaseous fuels are examined as pipeline interconnectors, liquefied natural gas, shale gas, biomethane and hydrogen in natural gas, and these are related to gas interchangeability. Various technologies for natural gas quality monitoring are described and compared. Finally the challenges and opportunities for individuals and companies are proposed and these require innovation and development to be able to anticipate and compensate for fuel supply variations in the future.


future energy mix, biomethane, shale gas, hydrogen in natural gas, power-to-gas, gas interchangeability, gas quality monitoring

* Corresponding Author:

Terry Williams

Article Number 201604, October 2017

IFRF - Past, Present and Future: 70 years of the International Flame Research Foundation

Philip Sharman1

1. IFRF - International Flame Research Foundation

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IFRF was founded as a result of international cooperation in the late 1940s around a semi-industrial scale experimental furnace being constructed by Royal Dutch Iron and Steel at IJmuiden in the Netherlands. The Research Station was constructed in the mid-1950s on the property of KNHS-Hoogovens-Corus, where it remained until a new agreement with ENEL and the University of Pisa relocated the organisation to Italy in 2006. From the time of its founding as a laboratory in which combustion and heat transfer concepts were developed and tested for industrial application, IFRF has cooperated with academic and industrial organisations to further develop the understanding of turbulent flame phenomena. Over time, IFRF grew in capacity and complexity to meet the needs of its members, undertaking communication and networking functions as well as research. Fifty years on, IFRF moved to Livorno in Italy. By this time the suite of services had expanded to include an online technical journal, an information archive of reports, books and proceedings, a combustion handbook and a regular e-newsletter, all focused around the needs of around 90 industrial and 40 academic organisational members. With realignment of ENEL’s activities, 2017 saw IFRF – now approaching 70 – moving to the UK, hosted by the University of Sheffield, with research undertaken in partnership with the ‘PACT Facilities’, where a wide range of pilot-scale facilities enable IFRF to continue its mission and broaden its membership and area of technical application.


combustion, burner, heat transfer, industrial, academic, power generation, research, network

* Corresponding Author:

Article Number , December 2016

CFD Modelling of Pulverized Coal Combustion in Blast Furnace Test Rig

Ari Vuokila1, Riitta L. Keiski1, Esa Muurinen1, Olli Mattila2

1. University of Oulu, Finland

2. SSAB Europe, Finland

(PDF article, 0.59 MB)

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Pulverized coal is the most common auxiliary fuel used in blast furnaces. Auxiliary fuels are used to replace expensive coke as a reducing agent for iron oxides. High amounts of pulverized coal injection lead to permeability changes in a blast furnace shaft together with an excess amount of unburnt coal. Permeability issues can be tackled with an adjusted charging program, but poor pulverized coal combustion will not enable cost efficient substitution of coke with coal. The only way to overcome this limit is to improve the conditions in pulverized coal combustion. The aim of this study was to create a combustion model for pulverized coal, which could be used to locate limiting factors in auxiliary fuel combustion in the actual blast furnace. Experimental results were used to validate the combustion model. The CFD model had a good agreement with experimental results with different types of coals. According to this study, this kind of combustion model can be used to study the blast furnace operation.


CFD, blast furnace, coke, auxiliary fuel

* Corresponding Author:

Ari Vuokila


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