:: copyright 1999 - 2018 IFRF :: Sunday 18 February 2018 ::
Industrial Combustion
Journal of the International Flame Research Foundation       ISSN 2075-3071

Latest Papers

On this page you can access copies of the last three articles published, and browse their titles, authors, abstracts and keywords. 

Article Number 201608, December 2017

The Impact of Natural Gas Quality on Large-Scale Combustion Processes in Thermal Processing Industries and Power Generation

1. Gas- und Wärme-Institut Essen e. V.

45356 Essen, Germany

(PDF article, 1.08 MB)

The size of the document is 1.08 MB and it may take few minutes to appear on Acrobat window if you have a slow connection. Please be patient.


Natural gas plays an important role as a fuel for power generation and industrial manufacturing processes, for residential heating appliances and also as a feedstock for processes in the chemical industries. The share of natural gas in the global primary energy mix is likely to increase even further in the future due to the decline of coal in power generation, as natural gas is the cleanest among the fossil fuels, both in terms of its carbon dioxide footprint, but also in the context of other pollutants such as nitrogen oxides or particulate matter.
At the same time, the global gas markets are changing: natural gas is a globally traded commodity today that is transported all over the world, both by liquefied natural gas tankers and an extended grid of pipelines. In some regions of the world, market structures differ as well. In Europe, for example, gas markets become increasingly international and liberalised.
One consequence of these developments is that end-users are more likely to experience significant fluctuations of the locally available natural gas quality as gas markets become more dynamic. The consequences of such local variations depend on the application: some are more sensitive than others in terms of efficiency, pollutant emissions or product quality. For end-users in many regions of the world, fluctuating gas qualities are likely to be a new experience and surveys indicate a certain lack of awareness for this topic among many operators of industrial large-scale combustion processes.
This article, based on two presentations at the IFRF Topic-Oriented Technical Meeting (TOTeM) on ‘Gaseous Fuels for Industry and Power Generation: Challenges and Opportunities’ in March 2017, gives an overview on the importance of natural gas for both manufacturing industries and power generation, current research on the sensitivity of various industries to gas quality and highlights the impact that fluctuating gas qualities can have on large-scale combustion applications. It also shows the importance of advanced gas quality measurement and burner/process control technologies to make sensitive processes more resilient to gas quality changes without compromising on efficiency, product quality or pollutant emissions.


Natural gas, golden age of gas, natural gas quality, thermal processing industries, power generation

* Corresponding Author:

Jorg Leicher

A Giese

K Gorner

Article Number 201607, December 2017

Use of RANS and LES Turbulence Models in CFD Predictions for Industrial Gas-fired Combustion Applications

1. Missouri University of Science and Technology

Rolla, MO 65409, USA

2. Brigham Young University

Provo, UT, 84602, USA

3. Elevated Analytics, Inc.

3013 N. Hwy 167, Ste B., Catoosa, OK 74015, USA

4. Computational Engineering Analysis, LLC

4729 Paso Del Puma NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111, USA

(PDF article, 1.08 MB)

The size of the document is 1.08 MB and it may take few minutes to appear on Acrobat window if you have a slow connection. Please be patient.


The basis, strengths and limitations of Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence models for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of industrial gas-fired combustion systems were assessed. Measurement and simulation results from the literature were compared. Applications included a laboratory methane-air diffusion flame, gas flow in a chemical process tube, heat transfer in a 150 kWth gas-fired furnace with a swirl burner, 250 kWth, 1 MWth and 3.6 MWth solid fuel combustion furnaces with swirl burners, and three multi-point ground flares. Results suggested that the roughly order-of-magnitude more computationally expensive LES models were best used to evaluate situations where ignition, flame stability and transient operations were important, such as with flare combustion. The benefits of LES relative to RANS for full-scale industrial furnaces operating in a controlled environment still have not been fully demonstrated. Amongst the RANS model variants, the k – model was favored for use in large, geometrically complex furnaces due to its computational efficiency and ability to represent turbulence over the wide range of velocity scales and flow conditions. For additional computational cost, the realizable k – model provides improved predictions for cases where jet impingement, separating flows, swirling flows, secondary flows and round jet spread are dominant. Due to the complex physics of turbulent reacting flows and complex geometries in industrial furnaces, a specific set of CFD submodels best used to model these applications has not been standardized.


Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Reynold-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), CFD, modeling, gas-fired, industrial combustion

* Corresponding Author:

Joseph D. Smith, Ph.D.

Bradley R. Adams, Ph.D.

Robert E. Jackson

Ahti J. Suo-Anttila, Ph.D.

Article Number 201606, December 2017

Characterisation of Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil based on Crude Oleic Acid

1. Universiti Teknologi Mara

Cawangan Pulau Pinang, Jalan Permatang Pauh, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

(PDF article, 0.34 MB)

The size of the document is 0.34 MB and it may take few minutes to appear on Acrobat window if you have a slow connection. Please be patient.


Epoxidised oleic acid is generally regarded as a high-value oleochemical due to its wide range of industrial applications including cosmetics, personal care and pharmaceutical products. Epoxidised oleic acid is also extensively chosen by industry because of its good performance as an intermediate chemical and because it can be obtained from renewable sources. In this study, the epoxidation of oleic acid was achieved by reacting it with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst. The in-situ epoxidation was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at selected optimum reaction parameters. The characteristics of the crude oleic acid and the epoxidised oleic acid were determined.


epoxidation, palm oil, palm kernel oil

* Corresponding Author:

Mohd Jumain Jalil

Disclaimer - © 1999-2018 IFRF.NET