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Industrial Combustion
Journal of the International Flame Research Foundation       ISSN 2075-3071

Latest Papers

On this page you can access copies of the last three articles published, and browse their titles, authors, abstracts and keywords. 

Article Number 201610, October 2018

Exhaust Gas Recycling for Enhanced CO2 Capture: Experimental and CFD Studies on a Micro-Gas Turbine

1. Energy2050

Energy Engineering Group, Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, S10 1TN, UK

2. Energy Technology & Innovation Initiative

Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK


Spanish Research Council, Francisco Pintado Fe 26, 33011 Oviedo, Spain

(PDF article, 0.42 MB)

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Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective exhaust gas recirculation (S-EGR) are means of augmenting the flue gas CO2 concentration from gas turbines, with the aim of facilitating post-combustion CO2 capture. Gas turbines operate under lean conditions, resulting in flue gases with low CO2 and high O2 concentrations, in large volumetric flows. This negatively affects post- combustion capture and can lead to enhanced oxidative solvent degradation in amine-based systems. Making use of EGR/S-EGR could mitigate these impacts, resulting in energy and cost savings for capture, as well as efficiency improvements in the power plant. The experimental research herein considered various degrees of CO2 enhancement in the flue gas through CO2 injections to the compressor inlet of a highly-instrumented micro-gas turbine. Coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models, the impacts on turbine performance were assessed, in terms of emissions, temperatures and combustion stability. At low loads, the impacts of EGR/S-EGR were greater – with higher levels of incomplete combustion products (CO and unburned hydrocarbons). It would appear that the presence of more aromatics (unburned species) and, to a lesser degree, the reduced temperatures, also allowed for greater nanoparticle coagulation, significantly changing the size distribution of submicron and especially ultrafine particulates. Moreover, the greater heat capacity of the modified oxidiser (air+CO2) resulted in lower temperatures measured throughout the cycle, which reduced NOx formation. The CFD studies used a steady-state Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach to corroborate these findings, with calculated in-flame temperatures up to ~100 K lower under EGR/S-EGR conditions and notable decreases in NOx levels.


CO2 capture; exhaust gas recirculation; flamelet generated manifold; gas turbine.

* Corresponding Author:

Karen Finney

Andrea De Santis

Thom Best

Alastair G Clements

Maria Elena Diego

Mohamed Pourkashanian

Article Number 201609, March 2018

Application of BFG-oxyfuel combustion techniques in a steel reheating furnace

1. Swerea MEFOS

SE-971 25 Luleå, Sweden


SE-12530 Älvsjö, Sweden

3. SSAB Special Steels

SE-613 80, Oxelösund, Sweden

(PDF article, 0.43 MB)

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The steel reheating furnace is the most energy consuming process in the rolling mill. Usually fossil fuels with the high heating value, such as coke oven gas (COG), natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or oil, are used for combustion processes to achieve the target slab temperature. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of using blast furnace gas (BFG) with a low calorific value in the reheating furnace by means of fuel preheating and oxyfuel techniques. This work compares various oxyfuel combustion alternatives, and their influence on the energy balance for the reheating furnace. In addition, a system analysis was performed to investigate the potential influence of these oxyfuel combustion alternatives on the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at an integrated steel plant. The economic evaluation is also discussed to some extent.


* Corresponding Author:

Chuan Wang

John Niska

Tomas Ekman

Anders Rensgard

Jan Pettersson

Article Number 201608, December 2017

The Impact of Natural Gas Quality on Large-Scale Combustion Processes in Thermal Processing Industries and Power Generation

1. Gas- und Wärme-Institut Essen e. V.

45356 Essen, Germany

(PDF article, 1.08 MB)

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Natural gas plays an important role as a fuel for power generation and industrial manufacturing processes, for residential heating appliances and also as a feedstock for processes in the chemical industries. The share of natural gas in the global primary energy mix is likely to increase even further in the future due to the decline of coal in power generation, as natural gas is the cleanest among the fossil fuels, both in terms of its carbon dioxide footprint, but also in the context of other pollutants such as nitrogen oxides or particulate matter.
At the same time, the global gas markets are changing: natural gas is a globally traded commodity today that is transported all over the world, both by liquefied natural gas tankers and an extended grid of pipelines. In some regions of the world, market structures differ as well. In Europe, for example, gas markets become increasingly international and liberalised.
One consequence of these developments is that end-users are more likely to experience significant fluctuations of the locally available natural gas quality as gas markets become more dynamic. The consequences of such local variations depend on the application: some are more sensitive than others in terms of efficiency, pollutant emissions or product quality. For end-users in many regions of the world, fluctuating gas qualities are likely to be a new experience and surveys indicate a certain lack of awareness for this topic among many operators of industrial large-scale combustion processes.
This article, based on two presentations at the IFRF Topic-Oriented Technical Meeting (TOTeM) on ‘Gaseous Fuels for Industry and Power Generation: Challenges and Opportunities’ in March 2017, gives an overview on the importance of natural gas for both manufacturing industries and power generation, current research on the sensitivity of various industries to gas quality and highlights the impact that fluctuating gas qualities can have on large-scale combustion applications. It also shows the importance of advanced gas quality measurement and burner/process control technologies to make sensitive processes more resilient to gas quality changes without compromising on efficiency, product quality or pollutant emissions.


Natural gas, golden age of gas, natural gas quality, thermal processing industries, power generation

* Corresponding Author:

Jorg Leicher

A Giese

K Gorner

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